Table 2

Criteria used to judge appropriate use of antimicrobials based on national and international recommendations7–9 28

IndicationCommentAntimicrobialDosage (mg/kg)Application frequencyTreatment duration (days)
Acute diarrhoeaAntimicrobial therapy NOT indicated unless clinical suspicion of sepsis based on clinical and laboratory data.*7–9Ampicillin20Twice daily/three times a day5–7
Amoxicillin11–15Twice daily/three times a day5–7
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid12.5–20Twice daily/three times a day5–7
Ampicillin/sulbactam‡30Twice daily/three times a day5–7
If suspicion of sepsis* and no improvement with initial therapy after two to three days, antimicrobial spectrum may be extended by adding.7–9Enrofloxacin OR10–20Once daily5–7
Marbofloxacin AND/OR2Once daily5–7
Metronidazole15Twice daily5–7
UTIsAccording to 2011 guidelines, complicated UTIs are defined as infections caused by anatomical or functional changes or disorders of the immune system, recurrent UTI /three times per year or more) or UTI in non-castrated male.28Sporadic (uncomplicated) UTI
Amoxicillin11 ̶ 15Twice daily/three times a day5 ̶ 7
Ampicillin†20Twice daily/three times a day5–7
Complicated UTI
Amoxicillin11–15Twice daily/three times a day5–28
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid12.5–20Twice daily/three times a day5–28
Ampicillin†2020Twice daily/three times a day5–28
Ampicillin/sulbactam‡30Twice daily/5–28
Trimethoprim/sulfadiazin15Twice daily5–28
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole15Twice daily5–28
Non-castrated male dogsOnce daily
Enrofloxacin10–20Once daily5–42
Marbofloxacin2Twice daily5–42
Trimethoprim/sulfadiazin15Twice daily5–28
Respiratory tract infectionsAspiration pneumonia or bacterial bronchopneumonia.7–9Mild to moderate diseaseTreatment 1 week beyond resolution of clinical/radiographic signs
Doxycycline10Once daily
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid12.5–20Twice daily/three times a day
Ampicillin/sulbactam‡30Twice daily/three times a day
Severe cases
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid OR12.5–20Twice daily/three times a day
Ampicillin/sulbactam‡30Twice daily/three times a day
Enrofloxacin OR10–20Once daily
Marbofloxacin2Once daily
Kennel cough: antimicrobial therapy only indicated if: poor general condition, rectal T>39.4°C or signs of lower airway involvement.7–9Doxycycline10Once daily5–14
Wound infectionsBite wounds: antimicrobial therapy always indicated, except damage limited to epidermis.
Abscesses: antimicrobial therapy only indicated if fever, reduced general demeanour, very contaminated wound or proximity to fragile tissues (ie, joints).7–9
 Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 12.5–20Abscesses or superficial¶ bite wounds: 5–7.
Twice daily
Cefalexin20–35Twice daily/three times a dayDeep** or penetrating bite wounds: 7–10.
Clindamycin10–15Twice daily
  • *Sepsis criteria used: lethargy plus at least one of the following: body temperature >39.4°C, heart rate >140/min, WBC <4 or >25×109/l and banded neutrophils >1.5×109/l.

  • †Intravenous or subcutaneous.

  • ‡Intravenous.

  • §Severe clinical, laboratory or radiographic signs.

  • ¶Only skin damaged.

  • **Skin and deeper structures damaged.

  • UTI, urinary tract infection.