Table 6

Diagnostic work-up and antibiotic prescriptions in 245 dogs with suspected UTIs presented to university hospitals or private practices

ParameterUniversity hospitalPrivate practiceP value*
Number of cases70175
Microscopic sediment analysis, n (%)
 Yes59 (84)73 (42)<0.001
 No11 (16)81 (46)
Bacterial culture, n (%)
 Yes67 (96)43 (25)<0.001
 No3 (4)132 (75)
UTI considered complicated, n (%)*†
 Yes48 (69)46 (26)<0.001
Bacteriuria, n (%)†‡
 Confirmed62 (88)27 (15)<0.001
 Excluded7 (10)22 (13)
 No enough data to confirm or exclude bacterial aetiology1 (2)126 (72)
Hospitalisation, n (%)
 Yes40 (56)5 (3)<0.001
 No30 (44)170 (97)
Pretreated, n (%)
 Yes14 (20)6 (3)<0.001
 No54 (77)162 (93)
 Unknown2 (3)7 (4)
Antibiotic therapy
 Yes68 (97)147 (84)0.3
 No2 (3)28 (16)
Antibiotic classes, n (%)
 Potentiated aminopenicillins53 (78)97 (65)0.07
 Fluoroquinolones12 (17)43 (29)0.07
 Non-potentiated aminopenicillins5 (7)22 (15)0.2
 First-generation cephalosporins2 (3)11 (7)0.2
 Third-generation cephalosporins0 (0)3 (2)0.2
 Lincosamide2 (3)0 (0)0.02
 Amphenicols1 (1)0 (0)0.1
 Potentiated sulfonamides1 (1)0 (0)0.1
Combination therapy, n (%)
 Yes5 (7)0 (0)<0.001
 No63 (93)147 (100)
HPCIA‡§
 Yes11 (16)47 (32)0.03
 No57 (84)100 (68)
Duration of therapy (days)
 Median (IQR)18 (10–27)11 (7–14)<0.001
Justification score, n (%)
 138 (54)11 (6)<0.001
 24 (6)1 (0.5)0.01
 313 (19)17 (10)0.06
 414 (20)25 (14)0.3
 Judgement not possible1 (1)121 (69)
  • *Statistically significant P values after Bonferroni correction are written in bold characters

  • †Complicated UTI defined according to previous guidelines as infections in the presence of anatomical or functional changes or disorders of the immune system, recurrent UTI (three times per year or more) and UTI in non-castrated males.28

  • ‡Defined as either positive microscopic sediment analysis or positive bacterial culture.

  • §HPCIA: highest priority critically important antimicrobials include third-generation or higher generation cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolides, ketolides, glycopeptides and polymyxins.

  • UTI, urinary tract infection.