Table 7

Diagnostic work-up and antibiotic prescriptions in 274 dogs with respiratory tract infections presented to university hospitals or private practices

ParameterUniversity hospitalPrivate practiceP value*
Number of cases108166
Duration of clinical signs, n (%)
 <7 days49 (45)49 (30)0.03
 >7 days34 (31)15 (9)
 Unknown25 (23)102 (61)
Minimal work-up, n (%)†
 Yes75 (69)1 (0.6)<0.001
Broncho-alveolar lavage and culture, n (%)
 Yes8 (7)2 (1)0.007
Cases judged severe, n (%)‡
 Yes25 (24)1 (0.6)0.7
 No3 (3)0 (0)
 Impossible to judge80 (73)165 (99.4)
Diagnosis based on clinical signs in addition to, n (%)
 Clinical examination alone15 (14)145 (87)<0.001
 Clinical examination and radiographs72 (66)16 (10)<0.001
 Clinical examination, radiographs (optional) and bronchoscopy12 (11)6 (4)0.014
 Clinical examination, radiographs (optional), bronchoscopy and BAL8 (7)2 (1)0.007
Hospitalisation, n (%)
 Yes69 (54)1 (0.6)<0.001
 No39 (36)165 (99.4)
Pretreated, n (%)
 Yes41 (37)7 (4)<0.001
 No66 (62)158 (95.4)
 Unknown1 (1)1 (0.6)
Antibiotic therapy, n (%)
 Yes82 (76)89 (49)<0.001
 No26 (24)77 (51)
Antibiotic classes, n (%)
 Potentiated aminopenicillins59 (71)58 (65)0.3
 Tetracyclines12 (15)26 (29)0.03
 Non-potentiated aminopenicillins2 (2)33 (37)<0.001
 Fluoroquinolones23 (28)4 (4)<0.001
 First-generation cephalosporins4 (5)0 (0)<0.001
 Third-generation cephalosporins1 (1)3 (3)0.4
Combination therapy, n (%)
 Yes18 (22)4 (5)<0.001
 No64 (88)85 (95)
HPCIA§
 Yes25 (30)7 (8)<0.001
 No57 (70)82 (92)
Duration of therapy (days)
 Median (IQR)12.7 (3–20)6.3 (0–10)<0.001
Justification score, n (%)
 168 (63)64 (39)<0.001
 21 (1)3 (2)0.6
 315 (14)11 (7)0.04
 419 (18)45 (27)0.06
 Judgement not possible5 (5)43 (26)<0.001
  • *Statistically significant P values after Bonferroni correction are written in bold characters.

  • †Minimal work-up consist of a thoracic radiograph and CBC.

  • ‡Cases were judged as severe if there was a reduced general state+signs of SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome)/sepis/left-shift+pulmonary involvement (radiographs or auscultation).

  • §HPCIA: highest priority critically important antimicrobials include third-generation or higher generation cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolides, ketolides, glycopeptides and polymyxins.

  • BAL, broncho-alveolar lavage; CBC, complete blood count.