Table 5

Diagnostic work-up and antibiotic prescriptions in 371 cases of canine acute diarrhoea cases presented to university hospitals or private practices

ParameterUniversity hospitalsPrivate practicesP value*
Total number of cases165206
Minimal diagnostic work-up, n (%)†
 Yes131 (79)12 (6)<0.001
 No34 (20)194 (94)
Sepsis criteria fulfilled, n (%)‡
 Yes34 (21)21 (10)0.08
 No129 (78)134 (65)
 Unknown2 (1)51 (25)
Haemorrhagic diarrhoea, n (%)
 Yes101 (61)52 (25)<0.001
 No64 (39)132 (64)
 Unknown0 (0)22 (11)
Hospitalisation, n (%)
 Yes141 (85)9 (4)<0.001
 No24 (15)197 (96)
Pretreated, n (%)
 Yes24 (15)0 (0)<0.001
 No138 (84)194 (94)
 Unknown3 (1)12 (6)
Antibiotic therapy, n (%)
 Yes116 (70)127 (62)0.08
Antibiotic classes, n (%)
 Potentiated aminopenicillins55 (47)13 (10)<0.001
 Nitroimidazole74 (64)100 (79)0.5
 Non-potentiated aminopenicillins0 (0)9 (6)0.007
 Third-generation cephalosporins0 (0)3 (2)0.1
 Tetracyclines0 (0)3 (2)0.1
 Fluoroquinolones3 (3)15 (12)0.01
Combination therapy, n (%)
 Yes11 (9)6 (5)0.1
 No105 (91)121 (95)
HPCIA, n (%)§
 Yes3 (3)18 (14)0.004
 No113 (97)109 (86)
Duration of therapy (days)
 Median (IQR)8 (7–9)6 (5–7)<0.001
Justification score, n (%)
 157 (35)62 (30)0.4
 25 (3)0 (0)0.01
 315 (9)3 (1)<0.001
 488 (53)102 (50)0.5
 Judgement not possible1 (0.6)39 (19)
  • *Statistically significant P values after Bonferroni correction are written in bold characters.

  • †Minimal work-up is CBC.

  • ‡Criteria fulfilled if lethargic and at least one of the following: body temperature >39.4°C, heart rate >140/min, WBC <4 or >25×109/l and band neutrophils >1.5×109/l.

  • §HPCIA: highest priority critically important antimicrobials include third-generation or higher generation cephalosporins, quinolones, macrolides, ketolides, glycopeptides and polymyxins.

  • CBC, complete blood count; WBC, white blood cell.