Table 1

Ethogram describing observed behaviours

Agonistic behavioursBehaviour associated with conflict or fighting between two individualsScore
Dominant
 ButtingBwWeak: When a cow uses head to attack another cow without displacing the other cow (eventually submissive cow can walk away by itself).+1
BsStrong: When a cow uses its head to attack another cow and displaces the other cow.+2
 Forceful behaviourFBA threatening swing of the head in the direction of the subordinate individual, followed by submission or avoidance on the part of the recipient.+1
 DisplacingDwWeak: The dominant cow physically displaces another cow with some part of the body other than the head. As a result, submissive cow steps (one step) aside.+1
DsStrong: The dominant cow physically displaces another cow with some part of the body other than the head. As a result, the submissive cow gives up its position and does several steps aside.+2
 PenetratingPCow pushing itself between two other animals, causing displacement in other cow(s). Filling up an empty space without pushing other cows is not included.+1
 ContactCCombat between two cows, with no clear-cut winner.0
Submissive
 AvoidingAwWeak: Cow turns head in opposite direction in order to avoid aggressor.−1
AsStrong: Cow moves in opposite direction in order to avoid aggressor.−2
 RetaliatingRCow retaliates with an attack.+1
 Being displacedBDwWeak: Cow physically being displaced because of movement by another cow, but with a maximum of one step aside.−1
BDsStrong: Cow physically being displaced because of movement by another cow, does several steps aside.−2
 Walking backwardsWBCow walking backwards as a result of dominant behaviour. Walking backwards out of milking parlour is not included.−2
 Being penetratedBPBeing pushed past.−1