Table 1:

Mean and sd of spatial and temporal forelimb gait variables by the four shoe types for the trotting gait

SurfaceShoe type (mean±sd)P values
FOSRTSEBSNSShoeSurface
Spatial variables
Sagittal
range
of motion
(°)
ROM carpus leftTreadmill74.54±6.1473.53±6.6972.36±7.9768.61±5.73<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile79.75±4.9281.51±5.7579.90±4.6574.36±3.61
ROM carpus rightTreadmill73.60±8.9573.20±7.8071.94±6.9966.98±5.81<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile76.32±5.9478.62±4.7280.05±4.4676.21±4.26
ROM radius leftTreadmill60.48±3.1760.75±3.5759.70±3.1160.46±2.510.09<0.001*
Geotextile64.15±5.3462.25±2.8362.16±4.0361.83±4.60
ROM radius rightTreadmill61.77±2.7960.64±3.2262.35±4.1963.89±4.34<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile63.66±3.7462.36±2.5563.38±3.0864.77±4.16
ROM metacarpi leftTreadmill82.05±3.0682.01±4.8582.41±3.8677.07±3.56<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile79.90±4.6580.31±4.6180.15±4.5176.61±3.51
ROM metacarpi rightTreadmill83.49±3.2583.29±3.5583.65±3.4978.29±3.01<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile80.63±4.7481.11±4.0381.38±4.8376.99±3.19
Abduction-adduction
range
of motion
(°)
ML radius leftTreadmill20.01±6.3118.35±3.3221.53±4.2722.50±5.53<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile19.10±4.6117.47±4.9218.15±3.8020.75±6.94
ML radius rightTreadmill13.82±2.5914.99±3.0613.16±2.0312.83±4.870.01*0.67
Geotextile14.19±3.5413.96±3.5912.71±2.9813.34±3.46
ML metacarpi leftTreadmill15.06±5.8613.88±3.6215.64±5.2517.24±5.980.05<0.001*
Geotextile14.09±4.5615.83±6.8010.99±3.3813.87±4.64
ML metacarpi rightTreadmill14.64±4.7112.64±4.6511.03±3.2313.26±4.53<0.001*0.29
Geotextile13.00±6.4112.65±7.979.77±2.8413.62±4.59
Symmetry
(%)
CarpusTreadmill0.41±8.050.18±6.520.22±5.511.16±9.940.02*0.26
Geotextile4.53±6.683.54±5.60−0.04±4.43−2.42±5.25
RadiusTreadmill−1.67±6.28−0.02±6.43−3.37±4.62−3.52±7.62<0.001*0.47
Geotextile0.97±8.64−0.21±6.16−2.27±5.27−4.74±7.36
MetacarpiTreadmill−1.73±3.28−1.64±3.47−1.51±2.51−1.61±3.420.860.09
Geotextile−0.91±3.51−1.04±3.33−1.51±2.82−0.52±2.87
Temporal variable
Stride
parameters
Stride duration (s)Treadmill0.70±0.020.70±0.020.70±0.020.69±0.02<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile0.68±1.910.69±0.030.70±0.020.68±0.03
Stride length (m)Treadmill2.33±0.092.33±0.102.34±0.072.33±0.09<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile2.45±0.242.37±0.232.43±0.212.39±0.17
Stride frequency
(min−1)
Treadmill85.77±2.3786.3±2.7685.69±2.6187.29±2.950.24<0.001*
Geotextile88.25±4.5686.52±3.4386.40±3.0588.46±4.33
Speed (m/s)Treadmill3.35±0.003.35±0.003.35±0.003.35±0.000.12<0.001*
Geotextile3.60±0.403.41±0.313.49±0.283.53±0.32
Limb phasing
(%)
LFTreadmill62.35±2.0862.14±2.4362.55±1.5859.97±2.77<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile65.04±1.9165.58±1.0865.61±1.7463.38±1.71
RFTreadmill12.92±1.9112.57±2.3012.94±1.3110.43±2.54<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile15.41±1.4415.21±1.3915.72±1.4713.67±1.79
RHTreadmill49.82±0.8649.73±1.1649.56±1.2649.73±0.970.42<0.001*
Geotextile49.32±1.3248.86±0.9449.36±1.1749.12±1.10
Symmetry
(%)
Diagonal asymmetryTreadmill0.39±1.130.16±1.15−0.06±1.370.19±1.370.04*<0.001*
Geotextile−0.30±1.69−1.51±1.34−0.54±1.82−0.60±1.94
Protraction
and
retraction
(%)
Timing A leftTreadmill47.27±2.3247.47±2.1048.07±2.2647.07±2.270.01*0.50
Geotextile47.60±3.3847.27±3.1348.27±2.3947.33±3.54
Timing A rightTreadmill47.00±2.3347.67±1.8348.13±1.8947.67±2.11<0.001*0.02*
Geotextile47.07±3.2647.67±3.3749.33±2.7047.80±3.54
Timing B leftTreadmill51.60±2.1952.67±1.9953.07±2.6150.60±3.37<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile55.93±3.1356.67±2.9956.73±2.8554.40±3.98
Timing B rightTreadmill52.33±2.4752.47±2.1553.27±2.9551.00±4.39<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile55.67±2.9755.27±2.9556.80±1.9452.80±4.19
Timing C leftTreadmill4.13±2.164.00±2.634.60±2.534.73±2.600.13<0.001*
Geotextile5.00±2.154.73±2.005.53±2.215.20±2.01
Timing C rightTreadmill4.87±2.664.00±2.784.47±2.454.80±2.66<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile4.93±2.774.40±2.316.60±2.365.53±2.01
Timing D leftTreadmill17.80±1.8518.13±1.7419.20±1.6316.40±1.43<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile20.27±2.8620.87±2.5021.80±2.4819.53±2.21
Timing D rightTreadmill18.33±2.0418.07±1.5318.80±1.2416.40±1.61<0.001*<0.001*
Geotextile20.13±2.4619.93±1.8621.53±1.6318.67±2.25
  • For the overall effects of shoe and surface, overall ANOVA P values are presented. The Bonferroni correction for the different types of shoe and barefoot confirmed that the differences are due to barefoot/non-barefoot. The three shoe types were not significantly different between each other (results are not shown). 

  • Gait variables with a ° unit represent an angular ROM of the particular segment or joint. Variables with a per cent unit represent a relative value of a stride always referring to the left hind limb (LH=0 per cent). 

  • *Denotes statistical significance.

  • EBS, egg bar shoe; FOS, regular flat open shoe; LF, left fore; ML, mediolateral; NS, no shoe; RF, right fore; RH, right hind; ROM, range of motion; RTS, rockered toe shoe; Timing A, maximal metatarsi protraction; Timing B, maximal metacarpi protraction; Timing C, maximal metatarsi retraction; Timing D, maximal metacarpi retraction.