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Original research
Effect of deworming on milk production in dairy cattle and buffaloes infected with gastrointestinal parasites in the Kavrepalanchowk district of central Nepal
  1. Upendra Thapa Shrestha1,2,3,
  2. Nabaraj Adhikari1,3,
  3. Samarpan Kafle3,
  4. Nabaraj Shrestha4,
  5. Megha Raj Banjara1,
  6. Katie Steneroden5,
  7. Richard Bowen5,
  8. Komal Raj Rijal1,
  9. Bipin Adhikari6 and
  10. Prakash Ghimire1
  1. 1 Central Department of Microbiology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal
  2. 2 Research Laboratory for Biotechnology and Biochemistry, Sanepa, Lalitpur, Nepal
  3. 3 Department of Microbiology, Kantipur College of Medical Science, Sitapaila, Nepal
  4. 4 Regional Directorates of Livestock Services, Birendranagar, Nepal
  5. 5 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA
  6. 6 Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Komal Raj Rijal; rijalkomal{at}


Background In Nepal, knowledge of proper handling, management and causes of cattle diseases is still limited. The main objective of this study was to explore the impact of deworming on milk production and its effect on milk qualities.

Methods A total of 200 faecal samples (100 buffaloes and 100 cows) were collected and analysed for parasitic burden. Half of the infected cattle (buffaloes, Bos bubalis; cow native, B indicus; European, B taurus) were then dewormed with Levamisole Hydrochloride-Oxyclozanide bolus, and the remaining 50 per cent were left untreated. The milk yield from both infected and dewormed cattle was recorded for 30 days and the qualities of milk were analysed.

Results The prevalence of parasitic infection was found to be 22.0 per cent. Fasciola hepatica was the predominant parasite (81.8 per cent), followed by Toxocara vitulorum (34.1 per cent), Strongyloides papillosus (6.8 per cent) and Bunostomum phlebotomum (4.5 per cent). The average milk yield (litre/day/cow) significantly increased, which was 1.22 litres per day for treated cows and 1.06 litres for treated buffaloes. The intervention effect of deworming among cows was 0.79 (14.06 per cent increment) and for buffaloes was 0.42 (8.32 per cent increment). After deworming the infected cattle, the protein percentage was significantly improved in cows (P=0.035), whereas the lactose percentage and solid percentage had increased significantly in buffaloes (P=0.002 and P=0.028).

Conclusion Antiparasitic treatment in cattle had positive effects on milk qualities such as solid non-fat, lactose, solid percentage and total protein percentage.

  • dairy cattle
  • buffalo
  • parasitic burden
  • deworming
  • milk yield

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  • Contributors UTS and NA developed the proposal for the study, which was finalised with the suggestions of KS and RB. UTS, NA and SK worked on fieldwork, milk yield analysis and quality analysis using lactoscanner. NS technically supported the fieldwork. KS and RB helped design the research, and edited and proof-read the manuscript. MRB drafted and reviewed the manuscript and analysed the data. KRR and BA helped in editing and reviewing the subsequent version of the manuscript. PG reviewed the manuscript and supervised the work overall. All authors reviewed and approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding The study was funded by TIRI (Targeted Investment for Research Impact) Scholar Award 2015 from Colorado State University, USAID. Colorado State University Feed the Future Innovation Labs, USA also provided financial support to this work.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.

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