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Assessment of hepatitis and fibrosis using Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI in dogs
  1. Toshiyuki Tanaka1,2,
  2. Hidetaka Nishida1,
  3. Keiichiro Mie1,
  4. Hiroki Yamazaki1,
  5. Lee-Shuan Lin3 and
  6. Hideo Akiyoshi1
  1. 1Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University – Rinku Campus, Izumisano, Osaka, Japan
  2. 2Kinki Animal Medical Training Institute & Veterinary Clinic, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan
  3. 3Laboratory of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hideo Akiyoshi; akiyoshi{at}


Background Gadoxetate sodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) is taken into hepatocytes and excreted into the bile. Hepatocytes with reduced function or dysfunction due to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), hepatitis or hepatic fibrosis show impaired Gd-EOB-DTPA uptake. The purpose of the present retrospective case series was to assess the relationship between liver function and contrast enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI.

Methods Sixteen dogs with a histopathological diagnosis of liver disease, including six with HCC, three with nodular hyperplasia, two with hepatocellular adenoma, two with liver fibrosis and three with hepatitis were included in the study along with three dogs with suspected liver disease but no histopathological diagnosis of liver disease. Relative signal intensities (RSI) of the common bile duct and gall bladder were calculated, and their relationship with the following serum biochemical parameters was assessed: total bilirubin, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and albumin (Alb). To assess anatomical liver function, relative contrast enhancement indices (RCEI) of the liver were calculated, and differences were assessed between normal and diseased liver.

Results RSI showed no significant differences between dogs without and with a histopathological diagnosis of liver disease (P=0.88) although they were significantly correlated with Alb (ρ=0.57, P=0.02) in dogs with a histopathological diagnosis of liver disease. RCEI was significantly higher in normal liver tissue than that in livers with hepatitis/fibrosis (P=0.048) and HCC (P=0.03) but not nodular hyperplasia/hepatocellular adenoma (P=0.51).

Conclusions Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI may be potentially useful in the assessment of anatomical liver function in dogs with liver disease.

  • gadoxetate sodium
  • liver function
  • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • hepatocellular adenoma
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • nodular hyperplasia

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  • Contributors TT was the principal investigator and primary author of the manuscript. TT and HA conceived the idea of the study. HA supervised the surveillance components. TT, HN, KM, HY and L-SL validated, analyed and interpreted the data. TT prepared the initial draft, figures and table. All authors contributed to the writing and editing of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The owners of clinical cases described in this study gave informed consent for the diagnostic procedures, treatment and use of clinical data, such as medical history, imaging studies and histopathological findings for research and publication purposes. Because all diagnostic studies and initiated treatments were part of daily clinical activities, this study did not reach the threshold for submission to the local ethical and welfare committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information. Our data are not in a repository. Publishable contact detail is ORCID ID; 0000-0002-7911-913X.

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