Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate the pattern of genetic expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), 1 alpha-hydroxylase (1α-OHase) enzyme and chemokine regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in peripheral blood of Holstein dairy cows during transition period.
Methods Blood samples were collected from 16 Holstein dairy cows at 3 weeks prior expected date of delivery (EDD), at the day of parturition, and 3 weeks post-partum for assessment of expression profile of studied genes using real-time PCR and measurement of glucose, ionized calcium (Ca), parathyroid hormone (PTH), inorganic phosphorous (P), sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), and magnesium (Mg) levels.
Results Compared with 3 weeks prior EDD, VDR gene expression decreased significantly at the day of parturition then increased significantly at 3 weeks post-partum. The genetic expression of 1α-OHase enzyme as well as PTH, K, Na and Cl levels increased significantly at the day of parturition. The Ca level decreased significantly at the day of parturition then increased significantly at 3 weeks post-partum. The P level increased significantly at the day of parturition then decreased significantly at 3 weeks post-partum. Glucose level decreased significantly at the day of parturition and at 3 weeks post-partum. RANTES gene expression showed non-significant changes among the three different time points. The expression of VDR gene had a negative correlation with the expression of 1α-OHase enzyme gene, and serum levels of glucose, PTH, P and K, but had a positive correlation with the serum Ca level. The expression of 1α-OHase enzyme gene had a positive correlation with serum levels of PTH, P and K, but had a negative correlation with the serum Ca level.
Conclusions Results of the current study indicate the importance of monitoring the genetic expression of VDR and 1α-OHase enzyme as indicators of metabolic changes during transition period, suggesting that they are candidate genes to judge the health status of dairy cows during such period.
- dairy cattle
- clinical practice
- internal medicine
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Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests The authors have declared that they have no conflict of interest.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval Statement of Animal Rights: All Institutional and National Guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article.
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