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Comparative onset of immunity of oral and intranasal vaccines against challenge with Bordetella bronchiseptica
  1. Maya M Scott-Garrard,
  2. Yu-Wei Chiang and
  3. Frederic David
  1. Merial, Athens, Georgia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Maya M Scott-Garrard; maya.scott-garrard{at}


Three groups of approximately eight-week-old beagles were vaccinated once with 1 ml of placebo vaccine (oral, n=9), 1 ml of Recombitek® Oral Bordetella (oral, n=10) or 1 ml Nobivac® Intra-Trac3 (intranasal, 0.5 ml/nostril, n=10). Seven days after vaccination, the three groups were challenged with virulent Bordetella bronchiseptica via aerosolisation. Eight of nine dogs in the placebo group and no dogs in the Recombitek® Oral Bordetella or Nobivac® Intra-Trac3 vaccine groups developed spontaneous cough of two or more consecutive days (disease case definition). Dogs in the Recombitek® Oral Bordetella and Nobivac® Intra-Trac3 groups had a significantly lower incidence of disease (P<0.0001) with a 100 per cent preventable fraction. The study demonstrated that vaccination with either Recombitek® Oral Bordetella or Nobivac® Intra-Trac3 is effective in preventing disease seven days after vaccination when compared with dogs vaccinated with a placebo.

  • canine
  • modified live vaccine
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica
  • onset of immunity

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  • Contributors All of the authors made substantial contributions to the design of the study and interpretation of the data. MMSG drafted the initial version of the manuscript and the other authors were involved with editing the manuscript and approved the final version. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work and ensure that any questions involving the integrity or accuracy of the study will be investigated and addressed.

  • Funding This study was sponsored by Merial (now part of Boehringer Ingelheim).

  • Competing interests The authors are employees of Merial (now part of Boehringer Ingelheim).

  • Ethics approval Merial Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

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