Table 1:

Case summary of radial and ulnar fractures treatment with paraosseous clamp-cerclage stabilisation technique

Case
no.
BreedAge
(m)
Weight
(kg)
Location of the distal radial fractureK-wire used (mm diameter) cranial/medialNumber/diameter
(mm) of cerclage(s) in proximal fragment
Number and diameter of cerclage(s) in distal fragmentMajor complicationRevision surgeryRadial radiographic outcomeUlnar radiographic outcomeImplant removal
1Russkiy toy162.50Distal fourth1/12/0.52/0.5HealedHealed
2Toy fox terrier53.00Distal third1.2/12/0.61/0.5HealedHealedDone
3Chihuahua82.30Distal fourth1/12/0.51/0.5HealedHealed/SynostosisDone
4Miniature Pinscher mix202.60Mid-shaft1/12/0.52/0.5HealedHealed/Distal osteopenia
5Italian greyhound243.3Distal third1.4/1.42/0.82/0.8HealedHealed
6Prague ratters71.80Distal third1/12/0.51/0.5HealedHealedDone
7Chihuahua172.30Distal fourth1.4/1.43/0.52/0.5HealedAtrophic non-unionDone
8Chihuahua51.20Distal fourth0.8/0.83/0.51/0.5HealedHealed/SynostosisDone
9Miniature Pinscher mix71.00Distal third1/13/0.52/0.5HealedDistal resorptionDone
10Prague ratters61.4Distal fourth1.2/1.22/0.51/0.5HealedHealed
11Miniature Pinscher161.10Distal third1/12/0.52/0.5HealedDistal resorption
12Prague ratters71.3Distal third1.2/1.22/0.61/0.6HealedHealed
13Papillon122.9Distal fourth1.2/1.22/0.52/0.7–0.5HealedHealed/Synostosis
14Miniature Pinscher492.40Distal fourth1/0.82/0.51/0.5Implant failure (broken 1 mm K-wire) after 4 weeksPCCS with 2×1.2 mm clamps and 2×0.8 mm cerclages proximally and 1×0.6 mm distallyHealedHealedDone
15Pomeranian91.90Distal fourth1.2/12/0.52/0.5Implant failure (distal cerclage instability) and malunion after 11 weeksPCCS with 2×1 mm clamps and 2×0.5 mm cerclages proximally and 2×0.5 distally (one hemi-cerclage)HealedHealed/SynostosisDone
16Prague ratters81.80Distal fourth1.2/1.24/0.5-Implant failure after 4 weeks, cause of missing distal cerclagePCCS, 1×0.6 mm distal hemi-cerclage was added;
one proximal cerclage was removed
HealedHealed/SynostosisDone
17Chihuahua121.40Distal fourth and proximal third0.8/0.83/0.51/0.5Implant failure after 3 weeks (clamp, bending),PCCS
with 2×1 mm clamps and 3×0.6 mm cerclages proximally and 1×0.6 mm hemi-cerclage distally
UnknownUnknown
  • PCCS, paraosseous clamp-cerclage stabilisation.